Stephen A. Fuqua (saf)

a Bahá'í, software engineer, and nature lover in Austin, Texas, USA

Should bugs and spikes receive story points to aid in sprint capacity planning? Some teams will estimate all work items by time during sprint planning in order to find the right commitment. Many teams hate this and/or spend an inordinate amount of time arguing about time. Those that abandon time may be tempted to put points on these unplanned, non-productive items, but there is a cost: the completed velocity will overstate the projected release timeline for the remainder of the release backlog.

Possible solution: track the ratio of story to non-story points and use that to pad out the release projection estimate.

Story point estimation has proven to be an effective tool for providing a general sense of time/complexity of effort on a discrete tasks. Over the course of a several sprint iterations, a team with a thoughtful product backlog and consistent work environment should begin to understand roughly how many points can be completed in upcoming sprints: the velocity. With sufficient statistics, a ScrumMaster can project out not only the average velocity per sprint, but also a confidence interval.

A team engaged in releasing software every few months might reasonably estimate the entire known backlog for the next release. But what about technical spikes and bug fixes? Spikes are timeboxed explorations that ask questions, the answers to which inform future story estimates and solutions. Bugs of course are corrections to previously-built behavior.

Many people choose not to put points on spikes and bugs because they are not stories — they are not directly providing productive value to the end-users. Others do put points on spikes and bugs for the purpose of sprint capacity planning. The two goals of planning a sprint’s activities and projecting a range of potential release dates are at odds. To illustrate the dilemma, let’s consider a team with the following data:

Sprint Points Completed
One 22
Two 19
Three 23
Four 25
Five 23
Six 24
Statistics μ = 23, σ = 2

The backlog for the next release has been estimated at 83 points. How many sprints is that?

  • 83.0/(23-2) = 3.95
  • 83.0/(23+2) = 3.32

Thus the team estimates that it needs four sprints to complete the release based on the current scope of the release backlog.

The team has received two bug reports from the user community and wishes to work on them in the next sprint, and they have identified a one day spike that is expected to resolve lingering doubt about one of the story estimates. The team prefers to push themselves rather than rest on a baseline, so during planning they decide to aim for twenty-four points worth of work. But how should they account for the bugs and the spike?

The team decides to put points on them; one of the bugs is simple looking and gets one point; the other and the spike are assigned two points each. Then the team picks out nineteen points of story work to round out the sprint commitment.

And now the release backlog has 88 points instead of 83, resulting in a range of:

  • 88.0/21.0 = 4.1905
  • 88.0/25.0 = 3.52

Probably done in four sprints, but possibly in five with the worst-case projection.

In solving their sprint capacity-planning, did they discover that the roadmap was potentially off by an entire sprint due to the two bugs and the design uncertainty? If so, it was good to discover that now. And would have been nice to predict even sooner.

On the other hand, what if these aren’t their first bugs or spikes? What if twenty percent of their completed points over the past six sprints were for bugs and spikes? Then the release projection — which only contained known upcoming user stories — was based on an inflated velocity. In that case, the five points added during this sprint will likely re-occur.

For the remainder of the time until release, scrutiny of the software may continue finding small bugs and discover usability rework, while the number of spikes will go down. Lacking any data to say otherwise, it might be reasonable to assume then that there will continue to be four or five points of non-story work in the remaining sprints as well.

Thus the 83 estimated story points account for only eighty percent of the remaining effort. And this can only be seen by separating the story points from the non-story points. Now the release projection looks more like:

  • (83.0*1.2)/21.0 = 4.7429
  • (83.0*1.2)/25.0 = 3.984

That is, it would be more accurate to estimate that the release will be ready in four or five sprints. And if the product owner really wants to hit four sprints, then they’ll need to cut around 25 points from the release to be on the safe side.

What about taking the opposite tack? That is, subtract the bug and spike points from the point total before calculating velocity. That is certainly a viable approach and perhaps worth experimenting on. What I like better about the first approach:

  1. If there are going to be spikes, bugs, and rework, then it is nice to have the extra data to apply to the future projections proactively. Sure, a reduced velocity would have also padded out the sprint length. With the first approach it would be easier to justify lowering the padding if their is less non-story work than “arbitrarily” raising the expected velocity.
  2. Better respects the teams’ desire to track their progress and throughput.


I don’t like having a single large file for a TeamCity project, which is the default when exporting a project. It violates the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP). For maintenance, I would rather find each element of interest — whether a sub-project, template, build step, or vcs root — in its own small file, so that I don’t have to hunt inside a large file. And I would rather add new files than modify existing ones.

Is This a Good Idea?

This note about non-portable DSL explains the basic structure when you want to use multiple files. And yet I never noticed it while hunting in detail for help on this topic a week ago; only just stumbled on it while writing this blog piece. It seems to imply that using multiple files is “non-portable,” but apparently I have been using the portable DSL: “The portable format does not require specifying the uuid”, which I’ve not been doing.

There is a small risk that I could do something drastic and lose my build history without a uuid. Since I also have server backups, I’m not too worried. And in all of my experiments I’ve not been able to find any problems with this approach so far.

Starting Point

The official help page has the following sample settings.kts file:

import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.*
import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.buildSteps.script

version = "2020.1"

project {
  buildType {
    name = "Hello world"
    steps {
        script {
            scriptContent = "echo 'Hello world!'"

File Structure

An approach to splitting this could result in the following structure:

.teamcity directory
|– _self
   |– buildTypes
      |– EchoHelloWorld.kt
   |– Project.kt
|– pom.xml
|– settings.kts

Some conventions to note here:

  • Per the Kotlin Coding Conventions, the directory names correspond to packages, the packages are named with camelCase rather than PascalCase, but the file / class name is in PascalCase.
  • Whereas the single file has the Kotlin script extension .kts, the individual files have plain .kt, except for settings.kts.
  • Root-level project files are in the _self directory. The TeamCity help pages mention this as _Self, but I prefer _self as it reinforces the Kotlin coding convention.
  • When converting from a single portable script to multiple scripts, be sure to set the package name correctly at the top of each file. Otherwise you will likely trip yourself up with compilation errors, unless you explicitly reference the package name in an import.

The individual files are shown below, not including pom.xml; there is no reason to modify it. Note the package imports section, containing both local packages and the jetbrains packages.


package _self.buildTypes

import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.*
import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.buildSteps.script

object EchoHelloWorld : BuildType ({
    name = "Hello world"

    steps {
        script {
            scriptContent = "echo 'Hello world!'"


I could have named this HelloWorldProject.kt, but Project.kt is short, simple, and unambiguous in the root of the Self directory.

When bringing the project definition over from the settings file, it needs to be converted into a class, so we replace project { ...} with a class declaration that inherits from the JetBrains Project class, as you see in the snippet below. We are creating this in the _self directory, so we also need to declare that our class is in the _self package, and we need to import appropriate packages from JetBrains. Note that the first import statement came directly from the settings file, but the second one was not there. We need to add this second import in order for the file to know what the Project class is.

package _self

import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.*
import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.Project

object HelloWorldProject : Project({


import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.*

version = "2020.1"

Enriching with a VCS Root

To further demonstrate, let’s add a new file defining a Git VCS root.

.teamcity directory
|– _self
   |– buildTypes
      |– EchoHelloWorld.kt
   |– vcsRoots
      |– HelloWorldRepo.kt
   |– Project.kt
|– pom.xml
|– settings.kts


See the previous post’s Managing Secure Data section for important information on the accessToken variable. Note that the GitHub organization name is specified as a variable — allowing a developer to test in a fork (substitute user’s username for organization) before submitting a pull request.

package installer.vcsRoots

import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.*
import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.vcs.GitVcsRoot

object HelloWorldRepo : GitVcsRoot({
    name = "Hello-World"
    url = ""
    branch = "%git.branch.default%"
    userNameStyle = GitVcsRoot.UserNameStyle.NAME
    checkoutSubmodules = GitVcsRoot.CheckoutSubmodules.IGNORE
    serverSideAutoCRLF = true
    useMirrors = false
    authMethod = password {
        userName = "%github.username%"
        password = "%github.accessToken%"

Next Steps

Hoping to cover in a future post…

  • Templates are just specialized BuildTypes.
  • Build Features
  • Generate XML for further validation

Infrastructure-as-code (IaC) is the principle of configuring systems through code instead of mouse clicks (cf Packer Tips and Lessons Learned for another example). TeamCity, the popular continuous-integration (CI) server from JetBrains, enables IaC through writing scripts to interact with its REST API, or by storing projects settings in version control. This article will share some lessons learned in using the Kotlin DSL for project settings. These will include:

  1. What is Kotlin?
  2. Benefits of using Kotlin
  3. Learning Kotlin from TeamCity
  4. Debugging before committing
  5. Managing secure data
  6. Connecting to forks

What is Kotlin?

Kotlin is a language developed by JetBrains, maker of TeamCity. Originally developed for the JVM, it is statically typed and compiled. JetBrains created a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) for describing TeamCity builds: the TeamCity Kotlin DSL. With this, all of the elements of a project - build steps, features, parameters, VCS roots, etc. - are all defined in a relatively easy to learn language, stored in a source control system (e.g. Git), and shareable across multiple installations.

Benefits of Using Kotlin

Some years ago, I had an architect that (quite rightly!) wanted the development teams to treat TeamCity like it is code. The only problem is that we were still clicking around in the user interface. Want to make a change to a build configuration? Copy it, increment a version number, modify, have a reviewer look at the audit history and confirm the output. This actually works reasonably well, but involves a lot of mouse clicking for the reviewer and programmer alike. And it is not transportable.

Build configurations in Kotlin can follow the standard software development life cycle:

  1. Develop in a text editor / IDE.
  2. Compile and debug locally.
  3. Test locally or on a test server.
  4. Share a code branch for review by another programmer (e.g. through a GitHub pull request).
  5. Deploy approved code to the production TeamCity server.

Each of these steps contains benefits in themselves. Add them together and you have a powerful system for efficient management of TeamCity configurations. No longer is it “treating TeamCity like code” - it is code.

Learning Kotlin from TeamCity

While the references at the bottom of this article can do much to help with understanding Kotlin, the following tips will help you get started in generating Kotlin configuration from existing build configurations — which is a much easier way to get started compared to learning how to write TeamCity scripts from scratch.

View Snippets in the UI

Many of the operations you can perform in the TeamCity web site (“the UI”) will let you view the Kotlin version of your change before committing that change. This is a great way to begin learning how to work with the Kotlin DSL, especially things like build features. The API documentation is of course correct, but hard to translate into reality without seeing these working examples.

Viewing an individual build configuration:

screenshot: view build configuration as code

Viewing a new build feature as code:

screenshot: view new build feature as code

Export an Entire Project

Likewise, you can start your first projects in the UI and learn from them, instead of having to figure everything out from scratch. Take a project - preferably a relatively simple one without dependencies in other projects - and export it to Kotlin. Now you have a detailed example to study.

screenshot: downloading entire project in kotlin

Internal Setting for Creating Smaller Files

If the project is large, you may want to split it into multiple files. Learning how to do this from documentation or blog posts is no easy thing. Thankfully someone asked on TeamCity], and someone answered. The answer isn’t entirely instructive, hence the section below. In particular, to learn how to split up projects, see the answering author’s comment about setting the “internal settings” property teamcity.configsDsl.singleSettingsKts.maxNumberOfEntities to something less than 20 in TeamCity.

Debugging Before Committing

In the Text Editor / IDE

I’ve been doing all of my work in Visual Studio Code using the Kotlin extension. This extension gives you real-time analysis of basic syntax and semantics, which goes a long way to detecting errors before trying to load your Kotlin scripts into the UI. Other IDEs with built-in or extended support for Kotlin include IntelliJ IDE, Android Studio, and Eclipse. I have not experimented with the others, and so I cannot remark on comparable functionality (although I expect IntelliJ at the least would have excellent support for the language, since it too is made by TeamCity).

Compiling with Maven

One problem with VS Code debugging is that it is not always obvious why something is flagged as an error, and it does not catch all compilation errors. For this, the Maven build tool is quite handy. If you’re not a Java developer you might not be familiar with maven. Thanks to a few random encounters with Maven over the years, I recognized the pom.xml file that was included when I exported a project. This file is similar to package.json or a csproj file. To compile it, install Maven* and then run ` mvn teamcity-configs:generate` in the directory containing the pom file. Read the debug output carefully and you’ll be on your way to fixing up most problems before you ever got to the UI.

Windows users: see the appendix for notes on installing and configuring Maven.

Here’s a sample error message, after I deliberately entered a typo in the project name for the main settings.kts file:

> mvn teamcity-configs:generate

... skipping some of the output...
[ERROR] Error while generating TeamCity configs:
[ERROR] Compilation error settings.kts[33:15]: Unresolved reference: AdminAppProjecta
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
... skipping remainder of the output...

On the second line, note that it mentions Unresolved reference: AdminAppProjecta. The correct project name is in fact AdminAppProject without the “a” at the end.


Now that you know it compiles, it would be nice to test out your project / modifications before updating your production server. TeamCity has made their free Professional Server quite powerful. This is not a crippled demo. You can install this on your localhost or a test/QA server. Push your DSL scripts to a branch or a fork (not the ones used by your production server), sync your test instance of TeamCity, and test that it really does what you think it does. Now create that pull request.

Managing Secure Data

TeamCity has features for managing tokens that secure private data (e.g. api key, password, etc) in your Kotlin scripts. Personally, I prefer the other recommended approach mentioned in the above article:

“Alternatively, you can add a password parameter with the secure value and use a reference to the parameter in the nested projects.”

Since you want these values to be stored outside of source control, the twin parameters can be setup at a higher level (perhaps in the root project). Each installation of TeamCity will need to re-establish these twin parameters manually. This is a good thing: you can have different credentials for a QA-instance of TeamCity - which may be pointing to different source control forks and to different deployment settings, for example - and production.


  • github.accessToken.secured = {your real access token}
  • github.accessToken = %github.accessToken.secured%

All subsequent references would use the shorter of the two. For example, you may have a Git VCS root that needs to be access with secure credentials. If using GitHub, you can use your access token instead of your password when connecting to the API. In your TeamCity Kotlin file, setup the VCS root like this:

    authMethod = password {
        userName = "%github.username%"
        password = "%github.accessToken%"

The github.username would thus also be stored one level above the source-controlled project, so that it too is not stored in source control.

Connecting to Forks

In GitHub terminology, a “fork” is just a Git clone that is stored under another organization/user’s account. As described above, with Kotlin files stored in version control you can create a robust lifecycle that includes testing a configuration before pushing it to your production instance. One simple way to manage this is with a personal fork. The following VCS root example uses the access token approach and combines it with a GitHub organization or username that is also stored at higher level in the project hierarchy, along with the username and access token. The branch and branchSpec parameters would be set in project, template, or buildType files.

package _Self.vcsRoots

import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.*
import jetbrains.buildServer.configs.kotlin.v2019_2.vcs.GitVcsRoot

object FlightNodeApi : GitVcsRoot({
    name = "FlightNode.Api"
    url = ""
    branch = "%git.branch.default%"
    branchSpec = "%git.branch.specification%"
    userNameStyle = GitVcsRoot.UserNameStyle.FULL
    checkoutSubmodules = GitVcsRoot.CheckoutSubmodules.IGNORE
    serverSideAutoCRLF = true
    useMirrors = false
    authMethod = password {
        userName = "%github.username%"
        password = "%github.accessToken%"


Appendix: Installing and Configuring Maven

The simplest way to install Maven is with chocolatey; if you don’t already have it, then follow that link to install it.

Do you have a Java Development Kit (JDK) installed? You will need one. I typically use the package provided by Adopt OpenJDK - but not version 16, as there is a bug when trying to compile Kotlin.

> choco install -y adoptopenjdk12

Now you can install Maven:

> choco install -y maven

Before running Maven… if you are on a corporate network that has a custom root security certificate, then you will need to install that into the Java keystore.

  1. Open a new PowerShell prompt AS ADMINISTRATOR.
  2. Check to see if the JAVA_HOME variable is already setup: does it display anything when you type $env:JAVA_HOME in PowerShell? If not, then…

    > $env:JAVA_HOME = "C:\Program Files\AdoptOpenJDK\jdk-12.0.2+10"
  3. Run Java’s keytool command with the following command. It will prompt you for a password; the default keystore password is changeit. If you don’t know what that is, then it probably hasn’t been changed from that default value :-D.

    > keytool -import -trustcacerts -alias root `
      -file C:\yourfile.cer -keystore $env:JAVA_HOME/lib/security/cacerts `
      -storepass changeit

Soon the Ed-Fi Alliance will release version 2.0 of our Analytics Middle Tier, welcoming it to the “big kids’ table” as a fully supported add-on to the ODS.

When we started this project in 2018, it was with the aim of creating a production-ready proof-of-concept (a seeming oxymoron, we know) for simplifying the Ed-Fi Data Model, thus making the ODS more useful for reporting and ad hoc analytics exploration (see From Diagrams & Definitions: Solving the Analytics Reporting Gap). As such, it was released on the Ed-Fi Exchange instead of being bundled into the core ODS/API platform.

Continue reading on

analytics middle tier

Spurred on by the goal of giving a brown bag tech talk on the subjects of test-driven development and SOLID object oriented design principles, I’ve finally collected all of the “wisdom” I’ve learned over the years into one place: Best Practices in Test-Driven, Object Oriented, Green- and Brownfield Development. I plan to keep this as a living document, adding or modifying as I continue to deepen my knowledge through feedback, study, and further experiments.

Entity Framework Core has a few changes that impact unit testing, particularly with respect to EntityEntry.State management. My previous unit testing techniques also did not take into account the use of async methods. In this article I’ll present a few techniques used in the context of a POC exploration of IdentityServer4. Although .NET Core 3 is now fully available, these examples are based on .NET Core 2.2.


IdentityServer4 has a ConfigurationDbContext that provides access for managing Client entities, along with an interface IConfigurationDbContext. While IdentityServer4’s infrastructure handles all of the OAuth processing, CRUD operations for clients is left up to us. Therefore I created a ClientsController and a ClientRepository, and injected the interface into the repository.

public class ClientsController : ControllerBase
    public ClientsController(IClientRepository repo) { ... }

public class ClientRepository : IClientRepository
    public ClientRepository(IConfigurationDbContext context) { ... }

public class ConfigurationDbContext : DbContext, IConfigurationDbContext
    public DbSet<Client> Clients { get; set; }


namespace IdentityServer4.EntityFramework.Interfaces
  /// <summary>Abstraction for the configuration context.</summary>
  /// <seealso cref="T:System.IDisposable" />
  public interface IConfigurationDbContext : IDisposable
    /// <summary>Gets or sets the clients.</summary>
    /// <value>The clients.</value>
    DbSet<Client> Clients { get; set; }
    /// <summary>Gets or sets the identity resources.</summary>
    /// <value>The identity resources.</value>
    DbSet<IdentityResource> IdentityResources { get; set; }
    /// <summary>Gets or sets the API resources.</summary>
    /// <value>The API resources.</value>
    DbSet<ApiResource> ApiResources { get; set; }
    /// <summary>Saves the changes.</summary>
    /// <returns></returns>
    int SaveChanges();
    /// <summary>Saves the changes.</summary>
    /// <returns></returns>
    Task<int> SaveChangesAsync();

If I were hand-coding the DbContext class, I would have made sure to include an interface just as IdentityServer4 did. I would also decorate it with a [ExcludeFromCodeCoverage] attribute: data access logic, which needs unit testing, belongs in the repository. The DbContext class is pattern based and, although there may be mapping logic, it is impractical to unit test. We’ll save that for full-blown API integration tests.

Unit Testing Challenges

So now we have two classes to test: the controller and the repository. Let’s focus on the repository. At first glance, it would seem trivial to write tests, and make them pass, using the Clients property and SaveChangesAsync method. The challenge comes from DbSet: it is an abstract class, it contains no implemented methods, the query logic requires an IQueryable, and the modification logic now returns EntityEntry objects. The EntityEntry object in turn is difficult to construct and the classes involved have warnings in the source code that they should not be directly relied on in non EntityFramework code.

Also of note: EntityFrameworkCore now has an Update method to go along with Add and Remove, so that those of who do not like using EntityFramework change tracking (more on this below) no longer need to use Attach and manually set EntityState.Modified, subject of my February blog post.

In order to unit test this, we will need some kind of test double that gives us the equivalent functionality while minimizing the effort required to write the tests. After all, if the testing is hard, we’re all the more likely to skip it.

IAsyncEnumerable and IAsyncQueryProvider

For this purpose, it is easier to hand-create a set of test-only classes than to use a mocking framework. Because of the async calls on IQueryable, this turns out to be harder than first thought: Linq is being used, and it invokes behind-the-scenes logic on interfaces hidden deeply away from us. This finally reveals a deep truth about ORMs: true isolation in unit tests is impossible when you are relying on a tool to generate SQL statements for you.

As I tried to work my own way through the additional difficulty of Linq with async support, I kept running up against an exception like this:

“The source IQueryable doesn’t implement IAsyncEnumerable{0}. Only sources that implement IAsyncEnumerable can be used for Entity Framework asynchronous operations.”

Thankfully Microsoft provided a leg-up in Testing with a mocking framework, albeit with Entity Framework 6 instead of Core involved. The code required for async has not changed much - primarily just a few interface name changes. My versions of these classes is available in GitHub: FakeAsyncDbSet, FakeAsyncEnumerable, and FakeAsyncQueryProvider.

Writing Unit Tests

Now we have the pieces necessary to write good unit tests for a repository, following this formula:

  1. Create a mock on the DbContext interface.
  2. Create a FakeAsyncDbSet<SomeClass>.
  3. Configure the mock to use this database set.
  4. Instantiate the repository using the mock DbContext.
  5. For query-based tests, manually add appropriate objects to the fake via theFakeDbSet.List.Add(...). Write assertsions for the correctness of the query result.
  6. For modification tests, verify that the correct objects were modified, using the fake’s convenience properties (of type List<SomeClass>) Added, Updated, and Deleted.

For a fully worked example, using NUnit 3 and FakeItEasy, see ClientRepositoryTests.cs.

Appendix: Change Tracking

Entity Framework’s change tracking mechanism handles caching of data, helping prevent extra database calls. In some systems this might be useful. In a potentially load-balanced web server, caching needs to be in a shared system - not buried inside of Entity Framework. The code will have to be written with the assumption that the object is not yet cached by EF, so you might as well just turn off change tracking altogether. EF in itself performs much better this way, although theoretically at the expense of some extra data access work.

To completely disable change tracking, call the UseQueryTrackingBehavior method on the database options object:

services.AddDbContext<ConfigurationDbContext>(options =>

The most popular request at the 2018 Ed-Fi Summit’s tech town hall was for an option to run the Ed-Fi ODS / API on an open source database solution. Historically, the Operational Data Store (ODS) database has been developed on Microsoft SQL Server, matching the preference of educational agencies that rely on heavily discounted licensing terms for on-premises operation of SQL Server. The advent of cloud-based hosting has changed that dynamic, especially since Microsoft ended the “bring your own license” (BYOL) practice.

One implication of that change is that educational agencies wishing to use SQL Server may need to pay full price when using non-Azure managed services for SQL Server; however, even with BYOL, managed services with SQL Server does cost more than other database platforms. So, with the help of an Ed-Fi Special Interest Group, we narrowed the field to one alternative database platform (for now…).

continue reading on…

A roadrunner

In Making a Mockery of Extension Methods - way back in 2014 - I wrote about a technique for a code workaround that would facilitate replacing extension methods (global static methods) with mock objects for unit testing. Over the years I’ve used this technique a few times and found two major problems:

  1. The technique of static delegate substitution is simply strange and requires too much thinking / analysis for good maintenance.
  2. The unit tests are brittle, often failing on the first try due to multiple tests interacting with each other as they replace the static delegate.

Interestingly, I’ve found the second to be true with both XUnit and NUnit, even when supposedly running tests serially. This problem did not occur as frequently when I first started using the technique five years ago; I was using VS Tests or NUnit 2 back then, so perhaps the more recent brittleness is from the change in frameworks.

At last I grew tired of the technique and decided it would be better to simply replace it with something more familiar: an injectable class. Thus the recipe:

  1. For a large set of extension methods over unmockable code - for example extension methods around database interaction - best to go ahead and create a thin adapter layer with an interface and constructor injection.
  2. For a small static method over unmockable code, consider a small class with optional interface for either constructor or property injection.
  3. If tempted to introduce a global static for any reason, consider instead using of these two techniques.

In my original article, I was wrapping extension methods from the micro ORM OrmLite:

public class Repository<T> where T: class
    private readonly IDbConnectionFactory dbFactory;

    public Repository(IDbConnectionFactory dbFactory)
        if (dbFactory == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException("dbFactory");

        this.dbFactory = dbFactory;

    public int Save(T input)
        int rowsAffected = 0;
        using (IDbConnection db = dbFactory.OpenDbConnection())
            using (var tran = DelegateFactory.OpenTransaction(db))
                rowsAffected = DelegateFactory<T>.Save(db, new[] { input });
        return rowsAffected;

public static class DelegateFactory
    public static Func<IDbConnection, IDbTransaction> OpenTransaction = (connection) => { return ReadConnectionExtensions.OpenTransaction(connection); };

public static class DelegateFactory<T>
    public static Func<IDbConnection, T[], int> Save = (connection, items) => { return OrmLiteWriteConnectionExtensions.Save(connection, items); };

The two delegate factories allowed Repository to be fully-testable, but at the expense of bringing in an indirection pattern that is unfamiliar to most developers and has the test-interaction problem mentioned earlier. Instead today I would simply follow the adapter pattern. Alternately I could accept that Repository is light enough to not be unit tested - that it is effectively, already, an adapter. The transaction support might be worth unit testing, and it is worth considering that a full-blown repository class would have more than just that single Save method. Improved version that is trival to unit test:

public interface IDbPersistence : IDisposable {
    IDbConnection OpenConnection();
    IDbTransaction StartTransaction();
    int Save<T>(params T[] records);
    void Commit();

public class Repository<T> where T: class
    private readonly IDbPersistence _persistenceLayer;

    public Repository(IDbPersistence persistenceLayer)
        _persistenceLayer = persistenceLayer ?? throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(persistenceLayer));

    public int Save(T input)
        int rowsAffected = 0;
        using (var connection = _persistenceLayer.OpenConnection())
            using (_ = _persistenceLayer.OpenTransaction())
                rowsAffected = _persistenceLayer.Save(input);
        return rowsAffected;

As another example, in the FlightNode project I used Entity Framework (EF) with tracking turned off for higher performance. When tracking is disabled, EF must be told that an object has been modified if you wish for EF to build an UPDATE SQL statement. In FlightNode, I had a business / domain class called DomainManager, with an injected IPersistenceBase. This class is arguably very similar to what most people would call a repository. I considered it business logic because it performed input validation on domain objects. In the original version, this class contained a static delegate:

public static Action<IPersistenceBase<TEntity>, TEntity> SetModifiedState = (IPersistenceBase<TEntity> persistenceLayer, TEntity input) => persistenceLayer.Entry(input).State = System.Data.Entity.EntityState.Modified;

The brittle unit tests were getting beyond annoying, so recently I finally changed this to wrap this single command in a utility class. To prevent breaking every unit test through introduction of a new constructor argument, I used property injection: thus only the unit tests that needed to mock this method would need to inject a replacement. I didn’t even bother adding an interface, knowing that I could use Mock to replace this virtual method.

public class EfStateModifier
    public virtual void SetModifiedState(IModifiable persistenceLayer, object input)
        persistenceLayer.Entry(input).State = System.Data.Entity.EntityState.Modified;



public abstract class DomainManagerBase<TEntity>

    private readonly IPersistenceBase<TEntity> _persistence;{
    private EfStateModifier _efStateModifier;

    public EfStateModifier StateModifier
        get => _efStateModifier ?? (_efStateModifier = new EfStateModifier());
        set => _efStateModifier = value;

    protected DomainManagerBase(IPersistenceBase<TEntity> persistence)
        _persistence = persistence ?? throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(persistence));

    public virtual int Update(TEntity input)
        // trust the validator to handle null values
        StateModifier.SetModifiedState(Persistence, input);

        return _persistence.SaveChanges();

This fixed the brittle test problem nicely. However, it leaves in place a glaringly-obvious problem: this base class is tainted by presence of Entity Framework! The FlightNode project was an after hours project with no one to review the code, one that an external organization was dependent on. In hindsight I see that I got sloppy here in my haste to deliver the code on a seasonally-relevant roadmap. The IPersistenceBase should have hidden the state modification.

If data lands in the ODS and no one uses it, does it empower educators?

Ed-Fi Community members are increasingly leveraging the Ed-Fi ODS as a source of data for business intelligence (BI) solutions, while many continue to develop it as a solution for compliance reporting. While the Ed-Fi vendor community provides many options for analytics based on the ODS data, some end-users wish to create their own custom reports and perform their own ad hoc analysis. The Analytics Middle Tier and the two Analytics Starter Kits recently published to the Ed-Fi Exchange aim to help this group by simplifying the ODS data model, provisioning support for role-based data access, and providing sample visualizations. These solutions aim to empower those IT staff who are empowering their educators and administrators.

continue reading on…

Working with a legacy codebase using NUnit and .NET Framework, I’ve found that there is a mix of NUnit assertions and assertions using the Should library. This library is rather old and, frankly, limited compared to Shouldly and FluentAssertions. These newer two frameworks are significantly more expressive, with APIs that cover myriad situations elegantly. Questions in front of me:

  1. Are any of these libraries really worthwhile compared to simply using NUnit’s built-in assertions - either traditional or Assert.That style?
  2. If using any independent framework, which is the best choice for this code base?
  3. If selecting Shouldly or FluentAssertions, ought we to upgrade the old asserts?

My conclusion: favor Shouldly. Upgrade old asserts opportunistically for consistency, but no need to go out of the way.

Full source code for these experiments is at

Why Use a Separate Library

Some argue that the assertion library simply ought to be independent of the unit test framework, allowing greater flexibility in switching between frameworks. Switching unit test frameworks in a large legacy project sounds rather tedious, so that alone is an insufficient reason.

One problem I’ve run into frequently in legacy code is people switching up the expected and actual responses. In classic NUnit, expected comes first. This situation is better with the NUnit3 Assert.That style; however, the values are still hidden away inside of the assertion method call.

Assert.AreEqual(expected, actual); // old style
Assert.That(actual, Is.EqualTo(expected)); // new style

When a coder reverses the traditional style, and you need to fix a broken test, it can get a bit confusing to figure out what is going on (especially if the variables are not so clearly named). In the course of writing this project, while switching back and forth between styles, I realized I had made this mistake myself - wanting to put the actual result first and then compare it to the expected.

If continuing to use NUnit3, this alone is a good reason to switch to the new Constrain Model. The three fluent frameworks evaluated here address this by putting the actual result at the beginning of the assertion statement:

actual.Should().Be(expected); // FluentAssertions, and Should in Fluent mode
actual.ShouldBe(expected); // Shouldly
actual.ShouldEqual(expected); // Should

Another problem is coming up with a meaningful message, which is especially important if you have multiple asserts in the same unit test (many people frown at that, and I frown right back unless the coders are prone to large numbers of mistakes per function). Each of these frameworks reports failures differently. Compare these results:

  • NUnit Assert: Assert.AreEqual(-1, sum); Assert.That(sum, Is.EqualTo(-1));

    Expected: -1 But was: 0

  • FluentAssertions: sum.Should().Be(-1);

    Expected sum to be -1L, but found 0L.

  • Should: sum.ShouldEqual(-1);

    Should.Core.Exceptions.EqualException : Assert.Equal() Failure Expected: -1 Actual: 0

  • Shouldly: sum.ShouldBe(-1);

    Shouldly.ShouldAssertException : sum should be -1L but was 0L

The latter three all provide more information than the first. Of these, I find the FluentAssertion response to be the most elegant for its compactness and precision.

Documentation and Richness

Compared to the other two bolt-on libraries, FluentAssertions clearly has the best documentation. Detailed and rich with examples, it was easy for me to find the right syntax for the job. It also clear that the library has extensive support for value types, references types, collections, and exceptions.

Shouldly’s documentation seems to be a work-in-progress. I was unable to find documentation of their exception handling syntax - I had to look for the functions in the object browser.

Should’s documentation is brief but relatively complete given that it is a smaller package. Looking at the repo, it also clear that the project hasn’t been touched in many years. This could mean that it simply works - but it also means that others have passed it by in the meantime.

Exception Handling

To get a sense of the syntax richness, let’s look at exception handling. Aside: In NUnit, I never use the [ExpectedException] attribute as I prefer to have the assert clearly visible in the method body.

NUnit Outer Exception

Assert.Throws<ArgumentNullException>(RunNullSeries); // old style
Assert.That(RunNullSeries, Throws.ArgumentNullException); // new style

Fluent Assertions Outer Exception


Should Outer Exception


Shouldly Outer Exception


There is not much difference between these. Fluent Assertions requires one extra method call. This is a general philosophical difference: it wants you to call Should() first every time, and then exposes the full API. What I like about this is that it presents a more consistent looking interface, compared to combining elements together (e.g. ShouldThrow, ShouldBe, etc.) This might just be a matter of style.

Inner Exception Handling

Both Fluent Assertions and Shoudly make it easy to also check on an inner exception. So does the new NUnit3 Constraint Model. With the other two frameworks, you’re left with catching and inspecting the exception.

NUnit3 Constraint Model Inner Exception


#### Fluent Assertions Inner Exception


Shouldly Inner Exception


Execution Time

Across thousands of tests, execution time for these asserts could certainly add up. Here is one place where FluentAssertions is not as attractive. I wrote the same tests in each framework and ran them many times. The results below are representative of the typical results in repeated executions:

Overall execution times

Yikes! What’s going on here? Let’s drill into the results a bit…

Detailed execution times

There is one test that makes up nearly 80% of execution time. And it is a trivial test:

public void TempVariable()
    var sum = AggregateCalculator.Sum(1, -1);

        .Be(-1); // purposefully wrong

Running that one test repeatedly, by itself, I see similar results. When I run multiple tests, that one test always seems to take the longest. Applying the [Order] attribute to the another test, to force another one to run first, the longest time shifts to that test. Thus it seems to be a bootstrapping thing (reflection?) with FluentAssertions - the first test seems to take much longer to execute. Subtract out the effect of that one test, and FluentAssertions performs better than classical NUnit asserts but a little bit worse than the others.

It is also interesting to see that the Constraint Model of NUnit3 performs very well. The most time-consuming assertion there is for the ArgumentNullException.


The execution time differences are troubling. This sample code base may too small to read too much into it, but this is an important finding and something to watch out for. Based on documentation and richness of syntax I would want to use Fluent Assertions, but if the project has a large number of tests, the small performance difference could add up to a meaningful increase in total execution time. If time to fully evaluate is lacking, then I feel that my best choices are to either (a) focus on Assert.That syntax or (b) upgrade Should to Shoudly and perhaps make time to pitch in on improving the documentation. Leaving existing Should tests in place would seem to be harmless since the performance is good.

Framework Documentation Richness Performance
NUnit3 (Classic) ++ + /
NUnit3 (Constraint) ++ ++ ++
FluentAssertions +++ +++ -
Should + + ++
Shouldly + ++ ++